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New York City Subways


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R 1-10 train in New York

Welcome to our Subway WebSite

Here's a preview of some of the exciting projects we have put together for you:

See our feature articles: "Wanna Kill An Hour?" , "Subway Math" , and the "Great Subway Map Debate" .
Read about the up-and-coming Second Avenue Subway and the extension of the #7 Flushing Line .
Read about New York City's first subway and history from 50 Years Ago .
Dont, miss "Snow and New York City Subways" .
Second Avenue Subway

Path of the Second Avenue Subway from Google Earth©

If you have Google Earth© installed on your computer, you can follow the path of this new subway.

We also have a series of pictures of the Second Avenue route available

See the entire New York system from Google Earth©

See more about the Second Avenue Subway on this page.

See more about the Second Avenue Subway on our Transit Planning page.

Find out about the loss of rapid transit on New York's Second Avenue.
Park Slope subway

Subways in the Winter

Subways are better off in the Winter than trams or trains. Yes, the entrances get clogged like this one at Park Slope. Where the subway goes above ground, there can be problems. Sometimes even a stranded train. See Winter on Metro-North and see Winter on railroads.

Find out about Dreams and Fair Promise

VISIT OUR TICKET BOOTH We can find you tickets for all the great music, sports and cultural events. We have the best prices and most availability of any ticket seller.

Another Groundbreaking for the 2nd Avenue Subway


Like electric trains? You can travel the EURO TUNNEL ("Chunnel").

We have great subway directions

and a

Subway Reference Section


Have some fun and test your skills with

"Name This Train!"

"For years, transit riders in other cities around the world have been looking at digital signs to know when the next bus or train is coming," said MTA Chairman and Chief Executive Officer Jay Walder in a prepared statement. "But in New York, we were left peering down a subway platform looking for headlights. We're changing that and improving our customers’ experience one station at a time." New York City Transit activates 'countdown clocks' at 100 stations
Corsica Ferry

Traveling in Europe?
You will probably need to make a FERRY RESERVATION.

Also available in French
Stop by and see our Reservations Center.
Corsica Ferry

Find out about Action Engine and Fair Promise The Forum for Supply Chain Integration

ec-bp was established in 2005 as the advocate for lowering the barriers to the adoption of EDI, and our email newsletter has been published every month since that time. Our focus has expanded beyond EDI to encompas the full gamut of supply chain practices and technologies. In addition, our readership has grown to become the largest of any similarly focused publication, and has expanded to include more than 90,000 professionals involved in nearly every aspect of the supply chain.

Today’s supply chain is more than simple transport of EDI documents. The complexity of maintaining compliance with trading partners, managing the ever increasing amount of data, and analyzing that data to drive constant improvement in processes and service take supply chain professionals far beyond the basics of mapping EDI documents.


What to do in New York City when you have an hour to kill? Try a subway ride. Dangerous? No, especially in daylight. One caution, keep out of the way during the morning and evening rush hours. Catch it at numerous locations. There are many spots to transfer between the various lines. It only costs a dollar to ride as much as you want.

The New York City Transit System is divided into two divisions: "A" and "B", with the "B" division having subdivisions "B1" and "B2". These divisional designations are used by operating personnel but the public has the former designations (IRT, BMT and IND) so firmly entrenched in their minds that nothing will ever change it. The old designations date back to the days of private ownership.

Electrification of trolleys and elevateds helped eliminate pollution and increase speed within the city, but most importantly, it made subways possible. The city paid for construction of the subways and then leased them to private operators. Partially because the nickel subway fare was important to keep politically, the city bought out the private operators in 1940.

The BMT (Brooklyn-Manhattan Transit) is the worst to ride and the slowest. In Brooklyn it is above ground in many spots. It consists of the Fourth Ave. line in Brooklyn and two routes in Manhattan. The Manhattan lines run up Broadway-7th Avenue to 57th Street and then into Queens.

The IND (formerly the Independent City Owned Rapid Transit Railroad) has two trunk lines in Manhattan. The 6th Avenue and 8th Avenue join at 59th Street to go to Harlem. They split in Harlem with one branch to 207th Street and another to the Bronx via Grand Concourse. From 53rd Street, there is a branch to Jamaica in Queens. Two branches run from lower Manhattan to Brooklyn. It is the fastest and newest of the subway lines.

The IRT (Interborough Rapid Transit) goes to the most spots. Its main lines are the Broadway-7th Avenue and the Lexington-4th Avenue. Branches run to Van Cortlandt Park and to Lenox Avenue and on to the Bronx. A branch runs over the former New York, Westchester and Boston to Dyre Avenue. A short extension goes to South Ferry. In the Bronx and to Pelham Bay it is above ground.

Most of my experience is in Manhattan. Based out of Grand Central area, I am reasonably adept at getting where I want to go. One of the traps I have run into is not knowing that "B" and "D" trains through Rockefeller Center shuttle only to 34th Street and require a change to continue downtown. The rebuilding of the "7" line from 42nd Street to Flushing through Grand Central has somewhat cramped my style in being able to reach Rockefeller Center from Grand Central.

The South Street Seaport can be reached directly from Grand Central by boarding a "4" or "5" headed downtown to Fulton Street. The "5" is better because it is an express and only stops twice, while the "4" makes up to nine stops. If the weather is pleasant, exit up to the street level and head east on Fulton Street. Since the station is a major interchange with both the BMT and IND, you can walk through the interconnecting tunnels and get a lot closer to the seaport if it is cold or rainy. Returning home, you could vary your route by any number of combinations. One possibility is to take a "2" or "3" uptown to Times Square and then the "S" back to Grand Central. For real variety, take the "A" uptown to Columbus Circle, change to a "1", "2" or "3" back downtown to Times Square, then the "S" over to GCT.

Greenwich Village is served by two stations: an express stop at West 4th/Washington Square and a local at Christopher Street/ Sheridan Square. West 4th is a connector between the 8th Avenue (IND) line and the 6th Avenue line. Catch the local at 6th Avenue/42nd Street and the express at Times Square or Penn Station.

Grand Central to Penn Station is only a short ride with one change. Start by taking the "S" (shuttle) train from GCT to Times Square. Leaving your train in Times Square, follow the signs to the "1", "2" or "3" train. Penn Station is the first stop headed downtown. Penn Station can also be reached on the IND line.

Bloomingdale's Department Store and Central Park can be easily reached from Grand Central by heading uptown on a "4", "5" or "6" train. Central Park is also served by "N" and "R" trains which run between Queens and Times Square. The big subway station at Columbus Circle (the other side of Central Park) is served by "1", "B", "D" and "E" trains, as well as the "A", "C" & "K" trains. The "A" train, as well as the "D", hug Central Park on the west side and provide stops at such tourist places as the Museum of Natural History.

Staten Island and the Statue of Liberty are at the end of the "1" line. Take the "S" from Grand Central to Times Square then catch the "1". Since this is a local, you may want to take a "2" or "3" express to Chambers Street and then change to a "1". The Statue ticket booth and the ferry are right outside the South Ferry station. Sometimes on a long train, you may have to move forward a few cars at Rector Street because South Ferry is an old and small station. To ride effectively (and not get lost), you need a good subway map. They are free and at many places. The easiest is the information booth in Grand Central Terminal.

Since 1904, underground travel has been available to New Yorkers and to the many tourists to the city. Initially, locals ran at 15 MPH and expresses at 25 MPH. Some days the system is lucky to proceed at that pace. This was faster than surface lines and the many elevateds in place at that time. Over 400 000 passengers rode subways before the end of its first year. Now, at least that many jump over the turnstiles each year.

The equipment in service is of a wide variety. The "B" Division (IND and BMT) has new Class R68 cars built by a Westinghouse joint venture. This division also has 678 Class R46 cars built between 1975 and 1978. These cars replaced pre-1940 cars. The "A" Division (IRT) has 325 Class R62 cars built by Kawasaki. Another 825 cars are by Bombardier of Canada. In addition, many older cars have been superbly rebuilt. This includes some Class R17 cars built in 1955-56 by St. Louis. Pullman Standard has been a large provider of cars in the past. Most of the other equipment is in sad shape - high mileage and graffiti marred.

Every rider must conclude - it is an EXPERIENCE !

By Ken Kinlock at

Have you heard about WAZZ UB


The World Wide Web is the future and it is our VISION to create a PERFECT INTERNET for all.

Nowadays, you have to click and scroll and waste a lot of time to find what you are really looking for. The big search engines, communities and email services collect your data to serve you with tons of unwanted advertising and to sell your data. Your mailbox is full of spam and spyware/malware is always around the corner.

In our VISION, we create a HOME for a GLOBAL FAMILY of users, where your DATA is SAFE and where you find all the USEFUL SERVICES that you need at your fingertips.

Imagine a company that is not only LISTENING to but DRIVEN BY its MEMBERS. A company that is SHARING SUCCESS and CREATING JOBS all around the world...

Welcome to the PERFECT INTERNET!

Sign up for your Perfect Internet Home Page today!

Which One of These People Hurt New York City Public Transit the Most?

Click on the picture to find the correct answer.
If you get the wrong answer, you will still see a good story!
Richard Nixon Robert Moses Jay Leno Adolph Hitler
Not only can you search hotels by city, but you can search by your favorite chain of hotels. Find a hotel room in New York City.
In a surprise move, Nice Mayor Christian Estrosi changed his mind about running Line 2 up the Promenade des Anglais and instead went with a plan that provides an 8.6 kilometer "tram/metro" with 3.6 kilometers below ground. It will cost €'450,000,000 and carry 110,000 - 140,000 daily passengers. It will run between Gare de Riquier and new? Gare Multimodal Saint-Augustin.
Boulevard Rene Cassin / Avenue Californie at the Champion/Carrefour food market has a tramway in its future.
Fifty-three years after the closure of the Tramway de Nice et du Littoral, the Tramway de Nice began to serve its Northern and Eastern sections. 2007 saw the completion of Line 1 serving the North-South needs of the city. Line 2 now addresses the East-West needs. This WebSite will be updated continuously until completion of Line 2 in Year 2017.

Find out about Witnesses and Fair Promise

Supply Chain Control Tower

Supply Chain Management Control Towers

Control towers are used in many industries for different purposes: airports and railroads use them for traffic control; power plants have control rooms to monitor operations; and third party logistics providers use them to track transportation activities. These are places where operations run well. Why not a


in order to monitor and assure your supply? Talk to us, we build them!

So just what is an SCM Control Tower? What are the functions of a Supply Chain Control Tower? Who staffs your Supply Chain Management Control Tower?

If you use an EDI VAN for your business, this message is for you. Move past the ancient VAN technology. JWH EDI Services Electronic Commerce Messaging System will bring your EDI operation into the 21st Century. The power of our global EDI network is available on your server, your cloud platform or your application. AND you cannot beat our prices.
You can connect and communicate with all your customers and trading partners through the JWH EDI Services Electronic Commerce Messaging System - Connect with trading partners around the world on a single Network-as-a-Service platform, get real-time transaction visibility and eliminate those manual network processes. It is a pay as you need model. We track all interchanges from the moment they enter the system, along every step across the network, and through the delivery confirmation.

How can we help you? Contact us: Ken Kinlock at
Nice Port

We Publish Four Daily Blogs
What Else DO We Do?"

Yes, see our blogs: Penney Vanderbilt; KC Jones; Ancien Hippie; and Crazy Pasta Child.

We manage public relations campaigns for major corporations
(1) New York City's Metropolitan Transportation Authority's SECOND AVENUE SUBWAYimplementation
(2) Florida East Coast Railway's on ALL ABOARD FLORIDA implementation

We work with corporations submitting RFP's (REQUEST FOR PRICES) to United States Government Agencies
An example is FEED THE TROOPS at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base

We sell heritage CD's from a large collection
Penney Vanderbilt
Penney Vanderbilt
Ancien Hippie
Ancien Hippie
Crazy Pasta Child
and Crazy Pasta Child
KC Jones
KC Jones
Penney Vanderbilt
Penney Vanderbilt
The boss
"The Boss"
Pictures of our BlOggers / Writers

We sell temporary portable housing..

JWH Rapid Response Temporary Housing offers a superb temporary housing product. Our buildings become residential accommodation, offices and much more.

The market for our shelters include: military training camps; recreational camping facilities; disaster-related (weather, etc); homeless persons; single mothers; ex-offenders; work forces (a la Job Corps); outdoor entertainment events. Some other uses for our shelters are: office complexes; dormitory complexes with internal laundromat, kitchen and dining room areas; hospitals, medical centres and clinics; warehouses, stores and workshops; factories and industrial buildings; garages; gymnasiums.

Some of the services we provide are: transportation to your site; site preparation for your portable shelter; assembly of your portable shelter; subsequent enhancements or moving of your portable shelter.

We have the ability to vary the styles of our shelters. For instance we can build single or double floor units. Our building can have ensuite or shared bathrooms. Several units can be "clustered" ("horseshoe" arrangement for example). Our units are ideally suited for installation of solar panels.

Our units provide comfortable residential or office accomodations. The units can be fitted with lavatory and/or washing facilities.Efficient thermal insulation is ensured (through our unique construction techniques) and complemented by internal wood-laminated paneling and PVC windows.The units are assembled to meet local electrical specifiations with wiring concealed using internal paneling. Unit size or function can be increased or changed, according to your future needs, by simply adding units.Number and placement of doors and windows an be varied by simply replacing individual panels. Additional accessories, such as furniture, air conditioning unit or electric heaters can be supplied on request.


New York City Transit

New York City Transit Museum

150 Years of Rapid Transit in New York City

New York City Subway Signals

Sibernaut's view of the New York City Subway

IND/BMT/IRT: What they are

New York City Subway statistics (always current)

Direct links on the site to information about rolling stock: Current fleet:

Direct links on the site to information about rolling stock: Retired fleet (after unification of the individual rapid transit companies):

Direct links on the site to information about rolling stock: Retired fleet (before unification):

Subway Stations, Subway Shops and Yards, Transit Events, Subway Destination Signs, Vintage Ads, and more!

History from 50 Years Ago

The NY City Transit Authority said that they favored seatless subway cars on the IRT 42nd Street Shuttle because the cars could then hold 10% more people and it takes only 2 minutes for the trip. Seats will not be removed from the present cars since the door motors and heaters are under the seats, although many riders don't realize it because the cars are so cold. Future deliveries of R-17's and R-21/22's will have added heaters in the ceiling.

The NYCTA has decided not to convert the West Side IRT 59th Street station to an express stop but may make both the 33rd Street and 59th Street express stations on the East Side subway. Robert Moses, the City construction co-ordinator, favored the West Side express to handle the added traffic at this area when the new Coliseum opened in April, 1956. Moses was also favorable to sell the NYCTA power plants to Con Edison so that the money earmarked for their modernization could pay for new subway extensions, including Chrystie Street.

Because of street congestion in Manhattan, the NYCTA and the Post Office were working on an agreement to have mail hauled by subway trains.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

See KC Jones BLOG about Railroad History

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

November 3, 1969 – This is the last day of operation of pre-WWII cars on the IRT #8 3rd Avenue El in The Bronx. The last train made one trip in the AM rush. (N)
Steinway Motor Car 5641 (ACF-1925)
World’s Fair-Steinway Motor Car 5670 (St Louis-1938)
Low-Voltage Trailer Car 5353 (Pullman-1922)
Steinway Motor Car 5636 (ACF-1925)
World’s Fair-Steinway Motor Car 5676 (St Louis-1938)
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Find out about Witnesses and Fair Promise

Grand Central Terminal and the New York City Subway

This page is our gateway to New York City. Find out about the New York Central Railroad's Grand Central Terminal. Explore the fabulous New York City Subway System. Learn who Robert Moses. was and his impact on New York City. Understand New York City transit planning, West Side Freight Line (the "High Line") and St Johns terminal. The New Haven Railroad and the Long Island Railroad reached into New York City. Did you know the Lehigh Valley Railroad even went into New York City (by ferry). Learn about the Jenney Plan to bring commuters into New York City and finally explore mysterious track 61 at Grand Central Terminal with its relationship to Presidents of the United States.

Historic Paris Subway

Paris has a great subway system. They also have an eye on history.

Fondée le 8 avril 1992 par Julian Pepinster et Benoît Renard, l'Association D'Exploitation du MAtériel Sprague s'est fixée 2 principaux objectifs :

- d'une part la sauvegarde et la restauration de matériels roulants représentatifs de l'histoire du métro, afin de les présenter et de les remettre en circulation ;

- d'autre part d'organiser sur le chemin de fer métropolitain des circuits de découverte du patrimoine du réseau, avec du matériel Sprague-Thomson, en passant de lignes en lignes par les voies de raccordement.

Les activités de sauvegarde et de restauration ont commencé sur un terrain privé en province, depuis 2003 le partenariat avec le 5e régiment du Génie à Versailles a permis de donner un nouvel essor à ces activités.

L'ADEMAS est aussi présente sur certaines manifestations ou expositions ferroviaires afin de faire découvrir ses activités.

AMTUIR - Musée des Transports Urbains
Name this Train

Name this Train

Someone sent us this picture, but didn't say where, when or what about it. Can you help us identify it???

OK. We got an answer. Thanks to Sean, we have an answer: Its the Manhattan-bound 'A' train leaving Rockaway Boulevard station in Ozone Park.

BUT, Anas says it is an M Train going to Myrtle Ave

Now. If someone will send us another mystery picture, we will post it.
No 7 Subway Extension

Extension of the Number 7 Flushing Line

Looks like this long-awaited project may be upon us by 2010.
The full project plan is available. It takes a little while to load on your computer

I'm trying to find out what happened to the SUBWAY STRAP?

If I search, all I can find is some opportunist who invented some contraption that you can buy from him that sort of does the same thing .... but it is germ free!

When did Subway Straps disappear???? Who made this decision?????

Are we sure this opportunist mentioned above didn't previously work in Procurement for NYCTA, change specs for contracts, then retire to form a great new business for himself?

I'm sure that germs wasn't the reason. New Yorkers are smart enough to wash their own hands.

Without the strap, if the subway car dumps air and goes into emergency, it's your arm and shoulder against a stainless steel bar (really, who do you think would win?). (Maybe newer cars don't go into emergency?) The strap (either leather or plastic) was flexible and let your arm/shoulder win!

The Interborough elevated rolling stock used leather straps for the benefit of the straphangers. I believe the original Interborough subway stock also used straps. Someone claimed that the inventor of the retractable (spring-loaded) handle for standees got a royalty on each of those devices installed on the Interborough and other systems. I think that the cars up through the R-42 had spring-loaded grabbers. Two problems may have caused their demise: 1) when the spring broke, the handle could swing loose and clobber a passenger, bringing a claim; 2) the patent may have expired and there was no reason for an insider to keep ordering them. Even some streetcars in the U.S. had spring-loaded grab handles. When the MTA rehabbed many subway cars, they returned to service with bars, no handles.

See a Boston subway car and an ad for Transtrap


The best thing about the newspaper NEW YORK NEWSDAY is columnist Jim Dwyer who is some sort of a subway expert. He recently had come into possession of a 1940 timetable for the Independent Subway System (IND). At random he looked at the Sunday morning schedule for the Queens Brooklyn local now known as the "G" train. There was a train every six minutes from 7 a.m. to 10 in the morning. The frequency then went to every five minutes for the rest of the day.

The "G" runs from the IND routes in downtown Brooklyn to Long Island City in Queens via subway where it connects to other IND routes. At Queens Plaza it joins trackage of the IND Jamaica line and runs to Forest Hills.

1940 was a landmark year as it marked the consolidation of what had been three divergent systems (IRT, BMT and IND) into a unified system. Also, construction of the subway was essentially completed by 1940. 25,885 individuals worked for the three systems before the city took over.

Although the tracks and tunnels were complete in 1940, the bureaucracy was not. The unifying headquarters of the three systems was called the Board of Transportation. By 1953, it became the Transit Authority and had 35,606 employees. In all fairness, some of this increase was because the Transit Workers Union had won a 40-hour week. In that year a new building at 370 Jay Street was opened. It was designed for 1,500 employees. It now holds 3,000. A new building in Brooklyn called Livingston Plaza will hold 2,500 more people now scattered in rental property. Ironically, nobody in either of these two buildings moves a train, drives a bus or sells a token.

As the last fifty years went by, conditions changed. The six-day week disappeared and for a variety of reasons ridership declined. Train service was reduced.

In 1968 another transit bureaucracy was formed - the Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA). It was formed to: take power away from Robert Moses (now dead); build 21 new subway lines (also dead); fill out papers for grants from Washington (also dead); take money from motorists and give to subway riders (mission accomplished); and coordinate regional transit (???). It didn't even replace the Transit Authority. The bottom line is we are not sure what it does.

The MTA started with no office space and no employees. By 1970 it had 83 employees and went to 295 by 1982. Now it has 465 people who fill a 20-story building and overflow to another building purchased in 1990. I wonder if we would miss it if it was wiped out?

In 1990, TA employees have swollen to 38,178 but the "G" train only runs at 15 minute intervals on Sunday mornings. Bottom line looks like half the subway we had fifty years ago run by half again as many people.

The biggest controversy now underway is the subway's nocturnal habits. The Transit Authority has proposed closing the system between 1 and 5 a.m. Many feel this is a way of spooking riders into accepting another fare increase. TA President Alan Keipper wants to run the system "like a railroad" - with very infrequent trains on fixed schedules. Others counter that the way to save is running shorter trains with only one employee.

The down side of killing red-eye service are the 39,000 people who ride trains at those hours. Few have cars. Substituting buses would raise employee-to-passenger ratios, burn more fuel and lengthen rides.

The logistical problems with closing the subways would be immense. Power couldn't be cut because work trains need to run. Many stations have no street gates. Kids could hide in the system at night and vandalize trains parked there because of full yards.

Increasing the current 20-minute wait during the wee hours of the morning would pose problems because of the 30 major transfer points. A long trip could take hours.

Getting back to the MTA, its real estate ventures are now big time. A 22-story office tower to be built by private interests has been proposed directly over the main concourse of Grand Central Terminal (New York's symbol of historic preservation). The original concept of an office tower in this spot came in 1910 from Warren & Wetmore who designed the terminal. Similar plans have shown up over the years and a 22-year battle over "air rights" continues in the Grand Central area. "Air rights" is the concept that enough short buildings and open spaces must exist to compensate for the tall buildings in a particular section of the city.

Rather than the "modern", but ugly, 55 story and 59 story skyscrapers proposed in the 1960's by Penn-Central, the proposed design is consistent with the exterior facade of the terminal. The proposed building has an enormous mansard roof and monumental columns just like the terminal below. It is set back enough so as to not overwhelm the terminal. Ironically, the terminal is built with strong enough supports and foundations to accommodate exactly this building.

The MTA wants to have clear title to the terminal before it completes its $400 million master renovation plan. Therefore, it is eager to see the property shed of some value, to help reduce the eventual purchase price or condemnation award. By purchasing property in the area, it can use the associated air rights to help a developer help the MTA.

By Ken Kinlock at
New York City Subway Tunnels
Find out all about them!

New York City Subway Tunnels

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

All aboard! New Yorkers step back in time with the Nostalgia Trains on the subway

Read more

The 'Nostalgia Shoppers' Special Trains' ran on Saturday and will do so again next Saturday, Christmas Eve.

Dress code: Twenties, Thirties and Forties chic (optional).

The trains are open to everyone for the usual fee of $2.25 a trip.

They are normally kept at the NYC Transit Museum in downtown Brooklyn.

For subway riders it was a great chance to journey back in time with wicker seats and windows that open.
New York City subway map
Click on map to see full size or print
VAKTRAK cleans the Subway
VAKTRAK cleans the Subway


Recently, New York City's Transit Museum held a panel discussion on subway maps. The museum has a map exhibition and staged this debate as publicity for it. The panel discussion discussed the merits of various types of maps.

The panel consisted of various map makers and representatives of large subway systems. John Tauranac, a New York City map maker who developed the current Transit Authority map in 1978, presented a proposal for a new one. His idea broke the map into three sections (day, night, and evening/weekend). He is trying to sell his improvement on the 1978 version to the Transit Authority. In addition, he has redesigned downtown Brooklyn to be less confusing. He likes the neighborhood maps that are also in use and spoke of his involvement when the project first started. At that time, he turned them out at rate of one/week.

Eric Keezer, the representative from Boston pointed out the differences between his city and New York. For instance, his map includes regional rail. They used to only have a "spider" map but then developed a system map. Their organization is putting more emphasis on use of phone directions and have privatized the sale of their system map.

Eric McCann, an American currently from Paris presented his proposal for a New York City map. My impression was that the lines were too straight. Only in Washington DC. can a train turn 90 degrees!

Chicago was represented by Ron Weslo who is not a map maker but instead the public information director. He mentioned how he had flunked commercial art in high school so definitely did not qualify as a map maker. The biggest problem Chicago has is that the historic names of the routes are screwy. For instance, "Howard-Park-Englewood" is not currently representative of one of his most popular routes. He would like to push a program of renaming the routes to colors or letters. In judging if a map is too complicated, he uses the "Holly test". Holly is an old girlfriend who isn't too good with maps and can get easily lost if they aren't clear.

The next proposal was made by Lance Wyman who has developed maps for Mexico City, Washington DC, and Toronto. His most interesting idea is to use symbols instead of words. For instance, each station would have a symbol representing something significant about that neighborhood. Doing New York might be a lot more difficult than Toronto or Mexico City.

The New York City Transit Authority was represented by Pat Fowler who was a public relations person and not a map maker. He spoke of the evolution of the current map. Major changes were made in 1948, 1968 (lines color coded), 1972 and 1978. New York City has 23 lines and what trains stop where is all different at a different times of the day and night.

The participants all agreed on some rules of good maps: clarity (legibility); order (logical); balance (placed correctly); contrast (what is important); unity (does it look good); purpose (who is the audience). Subway maps are networks (lines) covering neighborhoods (areas) with stations (points).

On the same day, the Transit Museum had an exhibit of "Tomorrow's Train Today" which consisted of experimental trainsets from Bombardier and Kawasaki. Builder's representatives and TA officials were on hand listening to comments. While I was walking through, a lady was complaining about too few seats (42) and no place to hold on to (Kawasaki) and bars to hold on too high (Bombardier).

These "new technology" trains are a glimpse at 21st Century subway travel. The Kawasaki train is built for the narrower tunnels of the numbered subway routes (IRT) while the Bombardier is for the lettered routes (IND and BMT) with wider tunnels. These trains were developed by listening to rider comments and are testing a number of different design and mechanical components. They will run in actual service to be fully tested.

In the area of communications, they include strip maps that display each station on the line, computerized announcements for improved audio clarity, electronic message signs and exterior speakers for people waiting on platforms. Several artists were consulted on making a pleasing interior design. The trains have air-bag suspension and electronically controlled brakes. For more comfort, there is computer-regulated climate control and wider doors (which also won't slam on people or catch their arms). For security, there are customer-emergency intercoms and alarm strips plus lots of glass to increase visibility. These trains are expected to go 100,000 miles between major repairs (the current fleet averages 40,000 miles). The onboard computer will quickly diagnose many faults right down to the individual replaceable components and also be able to communicate with maintenance terminals. The new trains are extremely energy efficient with alternating current motors and dynamic braking.

By Ken Kinlock at
Speaking of maps, check out

AMTRAK as a subway map.

Chambers Street Trolley

This is what Chambers Street looked like almost 100 years ago. Imagine we didn't have the SUBWAY!!!!!

Inside Old Subway Car Inside Old Subway Car
New York City subway map

Click on map of NY City Subway to see full size or print
New York City Transit Planning
El Line over Brooklyn Bridge

A postcard view from the Brooklyn Bridge Tower when the Myrtle Avenue El Line ran over the bridge to Manhattan. Skyline of Lower Manhattan, showing the Woolworth Building Left) and Municipal Building right.
For more about railroad terminals in New York City,
see this map and list developed by the
Port authority of New York and New Jersey.
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Subway Spring Street

Spring Street Subway Station
A Transit Terminal WebRing
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A Transit Terminal WebRing by king5021
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In 1972, Governor Rockefeller and Mayor Lindsey broke ground for the Second Avenue Subway. Nearly 35 years later, no trains have ever run under Second Avenue.

The line has had at least three groundbreakings.

In 2007, it will get another one.

Gov. Eliot Spitzer and a host of dignitaries will descend down a sidewalk hatch at 102nd Street, a block south of the spot where Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller and Mayor John V. Lindsay held a groundbreaking in October 1972. They will go into a never-used section of a three-decade old subway tunnel, stretching from 105th Street to 99th Street. The governor will give a speech, hoist a pickax and take a few cracks at the concrete wall, symbolically beginning the construction where it left off in the 1970s.

Several factors actually suggest that this time the outcome may be different. The financing for the $3.8 billion project appears more certain than in the past, including an anticipated federal commitment to cover about a third of the cost.

The goal of the first phase is to extend the Q line north from 57th Street to 63rd Street and Lexington Avenue. From there the Q will stop on Second Avenue at 72nd, 86th and 96th Streets. It is expected to become an integral part of the wider subway system when it is completed, which planners hope will be in 2013. Once further financing is secured, later phases of construction will extend the line north to 125th Street and south to Lower Manhattan.

It was September 1929 when the city formally announced plans to build the Second Avenue subway, extending the length of the East Side and into the Bronx. The cost of digging the Manhattan portion of the tunnel was estimated at $99 million, although there would be additional expenses, including the cost of real estate and equipment. But within a few years, amid the Great Depression, planning for the new line came to a halt.

The plans were revived during World War II. In 1951, voters approved a measure that allowed the city to raise $500 million for transit improvements, with the expectation that most of it would go to build the new line. But the money was used to fix up the existing system. No work was performed on Second Avenue.

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority took over the city’s subway system in 1968 and began championing an ambitious range of projects, including the Second Avenue subway, from Whitehall Street to 138th Street in the Bronx.

In July 1974, Mayor Abraham D. Beame attended a groundbreaking at Second Avenue and Second Street. He went at the pavement with a jackhammer. The plan was to build the subway piecemeal, contracting out short, disconnected sections.

A year later the city was near bankruptcy; Mayor Beame called a halt to further construction. The stretch of tunnel he broke ground on was never built, although three other sections were finished and sealed.
Subway No 7 Flushing Line Map

Here's a map of the No. 7 Flushing Line. The box at lower left is where the extension takes place.
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Second Avenue Subway from the Metropolitan Transportation Authority

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority and MTA New York City Transit have begun the final planning and environmental analysis for a full-length Second Avenue Subway, from 125th Street to the Financial District in Lower Manhattan.

The Second Avenue Subway will reduce overcrowding and delays on the Lexington Avenue Line, improving travel for both city and suburban commuters, and improving access to mass transit for residents of the far East Side of Manhattan.

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Should New York's Second Avenue Subway and/or The Long Island RR extension to Grand Central be built?

U.S. Backs Second Ave. Subway and Midtown Rail Plan

Federal officials gave two long-planned transit projects - the Second Avenue subway and a Long Island Rail Road extension to Grand Central Terminal - an important endorsement yesterday, adding to pressure on Albany to come up with nearly $10 billion in state matching funds.

Out of 27 projects throughout the country assessed in an annual evaluation by the Federal Transit Administration, the two New York City projects were the only ones to be "highly recommended." Congress uses the recommendations to decide where to spend transit money. That endorsement may do little, however, to alter the situation in Albany, where Gov. George E. Pataki proposed a budget last month that would give the Metropolitan Transportation Authority $19.2 billion for its next five-year capital program, far less than the $27.7 billion requested.

The budget would include $2 billion over five years for expansion projects like the subway line and the rail extension, about a quarter of what the authority says it needs to open the first segment of the subway by 2011 and the Midtown rail extension by 2012.

The Long Island Rail Road extension has so far received $254.5 million in federal money. The transit administration recommended that another $390 million be provided in fiscal 2006, and it expects to issue a financing agreement for the project in the next few months, which would essentially guarantee federal support for the duration of construction, assuming that the state provides its share.

The Second Avenue subway has received $8.9 million in federal aid, according to the transit administration, which said it expected to approve the project's final design early this year.

According to Federal Transit Administration documents, the subway line would serve 202,000 riders and the rail extension would serve 167,300 riders each weekday by 2025.

By SEWELL CHAN - NY TIMES Published: February 9, 2005
Second Avenue Subway at 125th Street and Lexington Avenue

Second Avenue Subway at 125th Street and Lexington Avenue
Another story on the Second Avenue Subway
Subway 2020

A Decorative Piece of subway history on the uptown platform of the No. 1 line at 59th Street-Columbus Circle — so old it actually antedates the trains — was concealed from generations of riders by a false wall.

The blue-and-white plaque was once part of a gallery maintained by the architects Heins & LaFarge for the purpose of testing decorative ideas.

“The Tiles in This Exhibit are the product of the American Encaustic Tiling Co. Limited / Zanesville Ohio / New-York N.Y.”

It turns out that the 59th Street station was a kind of proving ground for the architects Heins & LaFarge in 1901, three years before the Interborough Rapid Transit Company trains began running through it.

Hidden deep under New York City, a "secret" subway stop is drawing visitors.

The Big Apple's City Hall station, a beautiful structure that opened in 1904, but has been out of use for decades, can be seen by riders ... if they know how to make the journey. If you want to check out this long-forgotten station, one of the "most gorgeous gems in the world of mass transit," you'll have to take the 6 train and then stay on board. The 6 train used to make all passengers leave the train at the Brooklyn Bridge stop, but no longer. If you have a little extra time, you can stay on the train and view the City Hall station as the train makes its turnaround. So why was the station closed so many years ago? The station's curved tracks played a part in its closure. When subway cars moved their doors to the center, it "created an dangerous gap between the exit point on the train and the platform." There were plans to make the stop into a transit museum, but security concerns, especially following the events of 9/11/01, put the plan in limbo. Now, though, folks who take a little extra time amid New York's hustle and bustle can spy the station with their own eyes.

Cincinnatti, Ohio has something unusual too: an abandoned / never built subway.

Required Attire for a Remote Workforce

Ever wonder how your telecommuting colleagues really live? Turns out, many of them actually do work in their pajamas. They also tend to love their work-life balance – to the point where they’d take a pay cut to maintain the status quo. This is a “must read” for both remote workers and for their office-bound managers.

Hanover Square Phase IV

Hanover Square Phase IV

Seaport Phase IV

Seaport Phase IV

Grand St & Chrystie St Phase IV

Grand St & Chrystie St Phase IV

Houston St & 2nd Ave Phase III

Houston St & 2nd Ave Phase III

125th St & Lexington Ave Phase II

125th St & Lexington Ave Phase II

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